Analysis of PM10 in the Working Environment of Quarry Using ED-TXRF Technique
Okunade, Ibrahim Olusola
Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1014, Zaria, Nigeria.
Accepted on March 14, 2008.
Fractionated PM10 samples consisting of coarse fraction (2-10 mm EAD) and fine fraction (<2mm EAD) were collected from airborne quarry dust using the Stacked Filter Unit aerosol sampler and analyzed for the elements Si, Al, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, V, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Pb using Energy-Dispersive Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (ED-TXRF) technique. The results obtained indicated that PM10 emission is dominated by coarse fractions for the major element Al, Si, K, Ca and Fe while the fine fractions are highly enriched in trace elements Cu, Zn and Pb for the various quarrying processes. The study also revealed significant crust-air fractionation of Al and Si as a result of quarrying activity as demonstrated by Si-Al ratio which is 14.7-31.4% lower than the average crustal values. The study further showed the effect of wetting agents and mechanization of the quarrying processes in reducing occupational exposure to quarry dust.