Health and Environmental Consequences of Industrial Wastes and Toxic Chemicals
*Ofoezie, I.E.1 and Sonibare, J.A.2
1Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Nigeria.
*Corresponding author. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Tel: 234 36 231022
Accepted in January 2004.
Industrial wastes and toxic chemicals constitute a major challenge in environmental management. This challenge has increased dramatically with the increasing rate of industrialization, especially in the developing countries where modern technologies for waste minimization and conversion are lacking, and where resources for efficient handling of wastes are limited. In this work, the various processes leading to waste generations in major industries (Agricultural and agrochemical, Brewery, Battery, Cement, Chemical and allied products, Dyestuffs, Foam, Food, Iron and Steel, Metal works, Petrochemicals, Petroleum refining, Petroleum explorations and production, Pharmaceuticals, Plastics, Pulp and paper, Rubber, Soap, Sugar, Tannery, and Textile mills) are reviewed. The existing pathways through which the individual is exposed to these wastes and the probable health and environmental consequences of the wastes are considered. The various mitigation measures against such waste effects are also discussed to enhance effective management and sustainable development.