Observations on the Natural Enemies of Cephonodes hylas (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) on Robusta Coffee in Ibadan, Nigeria
*Okelana, F.A.1 and **J.A. Odebiyi2
1Entomology Division, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan. Ibadan, Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author: email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted on April 15, 2006
Field observations conducted over a period of eight years revealed a number of natural enemies of Cephonodes hylas (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) which is one of the major foliar insect pests of robusta coffee (Coffea canephora (Pierre ex. Froehner) in Nigeria. The natural enemies identified are predominantly arthropods belonging to the Insecta and the Arachnida. Telenomus species (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) was the egg parasitoid while Ooencyrtus sp near epilachne (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was less dominant than Telenomus. Euplectrus species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Ceromya femorata (Mesnil) (Diptera: Tachinidae) were the two larval parasitoids encountered. The only larval ectoparasite recorded was the ceratopogonid Forcipomyia species. (Diptera). The insect predators were mostly members of the orders Dictyoptera (represented by the family Mantidae) and the Hymenoptera (represented by families Formicidae (sub-families-Ponerinae, Mymicinae, Formicinae and Dorylinae) and the Vespidae. Various species of unidentified predatory spiders (Araneae) were the dominant predators of especially the early larval instars of C. hylas.