Review of Environmental Impact Assessment Policies in Nigeria since 1988: How Far? How Effective?
D.O. Olopade, A.A. Adeyemi and K.I. Jimba
Wesley University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 507 Ondo.
Accepted July 31, 2013
The paper reviewed the environmental impact assessment Policies on the social and natural environment. It traced its origin to United States of America when National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was passed by the congress in 1969, also how Environmental Impact objective empowers FEPA (Federal Environmental Protection Agency) to make as assessment of any project intended to be carried on in the country by any person, and authority, corporate or unincorporated body. The review also confirmed that Federal government’s focus on exploration of natural resources for industrialization and this led to pollution, contamination of water resources, land, air and climate which destroys fauna and flora, causes health hazards and communal diseases activities. Following the 1972 stake holder conference held in UN conference on Human Environment. In 1992 Rio de Jeneiro earth summit and dumping of toxic waste in Koko in Delta State of Nigeria policies on environment, including the Federal Environmental legal frame work pollution and degradation in the country. One of the empirical findings confirmed that Environmental act was characterized by ecological problems, unplanned growth and increasing problems domestic and industrial waste disposal. Economic activities increase the loss of top soil, deforestation, loss of habitat, species, biodiversity and degradation of wetlands. The weak implementation, privatization of Nigeria enterprises and its consequent use by those in power to promote private gains, lack of policies enforcement, exclusion of some projects carried out or sponsored. The paper conclude that Environmental Impact Policy (Act) has failed to protect Nigerians and thereby suggest good governance as the likely solution.